Classroom Instruction That Works
Robert J. Marzano
Debra J. Pickering
Jane E. Pollock

Homework:
After correcting homework, have students write down how much time they spent on it, and their percentage correct. Look at tonight’s homework and ask themselves, “What do I already have to know, in order to complete this homework assignment tonight?”

Practice:
1st 4 times = 48% mastery; 24 times=80% mastery
Skill mastery does not happen quickly, requires practice spread out over time.

Notetaking:
Have students divide their papers in 2 columns with a horizontal line across the bottom of the page.
1st day, verbatim.
2nd day, review, revise, elaborate, (add to, the more the better) Explain and justify their elaborations.

Make a concrete picture of how it might look in their mind. Diagram, web, graph. (See pattern organizer below.)

Third day, generalize to other situations.

Review periodically.
At the bottom of the page, have students write a summary of what they learned from this lesson.

Videos:
Students write a summary of the video, using the conversation frame summary listed below. Teacher can pause the video to give students time to write:

If the video is just a converstion, use the Conversation Frame:
Greeting (How did the members of the conversation greet each other?)
Inquiry (What question or topic was revealed or referred to?)
Discussion (How did their discussion progress? State facts? Request? Demand for action? Threatened consequences if a demand was not met? Comment on something another person had done?)
Conclusion (How did the conversation conclude?)
The next day, have them write the summary again without their notes. The third day, have them re-tell the story to their partner, with no notes.

Effort:
To show how effort correlates with achievement, have students create a graph where the days of the week for the whole unit are on the horizontal axis, and percentages to 100 are on the vertical axis. Each day, they plot the percentage correlating the amount of effort they put in, in relation to how much they could have learned, if they’d given 100% during class time.
Have them do a self-assessment after each test. List what behaviors worked well for them, as well as those which need to be changed to be more successful. Share with small groups.
Have them keep these in a learning journal for each unit which is turned in.

Pattern Organizers:
The main concept goes in the center circle, characteristics go in the rectangles, examples of each go in the diamonds.
Ex: Spanish Grammar: 4 types of stem-changing verbs, list examples under each type.

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Inductive Teaching:
While asking questions, plan carefully to make sure you’re eliciting information that’s important, not just what’s interesting. Pause once in a while, have students write down what their hypothesis is, do an experiment to test it, and confirm or disconfirm their hypothesis. Give more examples, and see if they can revise their hypothesis.

Advance organizers:
Show students what they’ll be able to do at the end of the lesson.

Study Skills:
Tell students how to learn best from each of the different tasks they do in your classroom.